Synthesis and evaluation of an intercalator-polyamide hairpin designed to target the inverted CCAAT box 2 in the topoisomerase IIÎ± promoter
Flores, L. V.; Staples, A. M.; Mackay, H.; Howard, C. M.; Uthe, P. B.; Sexton, J. S.; Buchmueller, K. L.; Wilson, W. D.; O'Hare, C.; Kluza, J.; Hochhauser, D.; Hartley, J. A.; Lee, M. Synthesis and evaluation of an intercalator-polyamide hairpin designed to target the inverted CCAAT box 2 in the topoisomerase IIÎ± promoter. ChemBioChem 2006, 7, 1722-9.
The synthesis and DNA-binding properties of a novel naphthalimide-polyamide hairpin (3) designed to target the inverted CCAAT box 2 (ICB2) site on the topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha) promoter are described. The polyamide component of 3 was derived from the minor-groove binder, 2, and tailored to bind to the 5'-TTGGT sequence found in and flanking ICB2. The propensity of mitonafide 4 to intercalate between G-C base pairs was exploited by the incorporation of a naphthalimide moiety at the N terminus of 2. Hybrid 3 targeted 5'-CGATTGGT and covered eight contiguous base pairs, which included the underlined ICB2 site. DNase I footprinting analysis with the topoIIalpha promoter sequence demonstrated that 3 bound selectively to the ICB2 and ICB3 sites. Thermal-denaturation studies confirmed these results, and the highest degree of stabilization was found for ICB2 and -3 in preference to ICB1 (4.1, 4.6, and 0.6 degrees C, respectively). CD studies confirmed minor-groove binding and suggested a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Emission-titration experiments established intercalative binding. Surface plasmon resonance results showed strong binding to ICB2 (2.5x10(7) M(-1)) with no observable binding to ICB1. Furthermore, the binding constant of 3 to ICB2 was larger than that of the parent polyamide 2. The increased binding affinity was primarily due to a reduction in the dissociation-rate constant of the polyamide-DNA complex, which can be attributed to the N-terminal naphthalimide moiety. In addition, the binding site of 3 was larger than that of 2, which innately improved sequence selectivity. We conclude that the polyamide-naphthalimide 3 selectively binds to the ICB2 site by simultaneous intercalation and minor-groove binding, and warrants further investigation as a model compound for the regulation of topoIIalpha gene expression.