The effect of AT and GC sequence specific minor groove-binding agents on restriction endonuclease activity
Forrow, S. M.; Lee, M.; Souhami, R. L.; Hartley, J. A. The effect of AT and GC sequence specific minor groove-binding agents on restriction endonuclease activity. Chem. Biol. Interact. 1995, 96, 125-142.
The ability of the naturally occurring A/T specific DNA minor groove binders netropsin and distamycin A and two synthetic G/C selective oligopeptide analogues (1 and 2), to interfere with the catalytic activity of restriction endonucleases has been investigated. Enzymes were chosen to have A/T rich (EcoRI, EcoRV) or G/C rich (BalI, NruI) recognition sequences. An agarose gel assay was used to measure the cleavage of 32P-labelled DNA and ligand-DNA binding data was obtained using methidium-propyl EDTA footprinting. Netropsin and distamycin bind at the recognition sites, and dose-dependently inhibited cleavage by, EcoRI and EcoRV, (EcoRI > EcoRV). They were also more effective at inhibiting the catalytic activity of BalI than either 1 or 2. NruI was inhibited by distamycin and 2, but not by netropsin or 1. DNA footprinting revealed that neither 1 or 2 bound to the BalI or NruI recognition sequences under the conditions used whereas netropsin and distamycin footprint at adjacent sites. 1 binds to two of the three recognition sequences for the enzyme Fnu4HI (GCNGC) in the fragment studied and was shown to inhibit DNA cleavage only at these two sites. 2 binds strongly to two GGGCTC sequences which are recognition sites for the enzyme BanII. In this case a pronounced stimulation of cleavage was observed in the presence of 2 over a wide dose range. The results indicate that enzyme inhibition does not necessarily result from simultaneous occupancy of a common site, or at nearby flanking sequences, and in some circumstances, a pronounced stimulation of enzyme cleavage can occur.