Title

The Effect Of Transposable Elements And Transcription Factor Binding Sites On Gene Expression

Author(s)

Tammy Ray

School Name

Governor's School for Science and Math

Grade Level

12th Grade

Presentation Topic

Cell and Molecular Biology

Presentation Type

Mentored

Mentor

Mentor: Dr. Wang; Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine

Abstract

Genetic variations in gene regulation are a leading cause of many common diseases. Recently, the scientific community has investigated the relationship between transposable elements (TE’s) and gene expression. TE’s are segments of DNA that have can move around the genome, excising themselves from one segment of DNA and implanting themselves into another. TE’s make up 45% of the human genome, but do not code for proteins. Previous studies show that they act as enhancers under certain abiotic stress. It’s also been shown that close relatives of TE’s, conserved noncoding sequences, act as enhancers in embryotic zebrafish. However, no studies have been done on the regulatory abilities of TE’s in cells similar to human cells under normal conditions. This study specifically tests the ability of TE’s to act as enhancers in mouse embryotic stem cells. Three segments were found in mouse genomic DNA: one containing a TE and transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), one with a TE outside of TFBS, and one with TFBS only. These three segments were isolated from the mouse genomic DNA and an assay tested levels of gene expression of each segment. The assay showed that TE’s alone do not enhance gene expression, but TE’s with TFBS increase gene expression compared to basal transcription. The segment with TFBS outside a TE showed an increase in gene expression in one orientation of the gene and a decrease in the reverse orientation.

Location

Owens 201

Start Date

4-16-2016 11:30 AM

COinS
 
Apr 16th, 11:30 AM

The Effect Of Transposable Elements And Transcription Factor Binding Sites On Gene Expression

Owens 201

Genetic variations in gene regulation are a leading cause of many common diseases. Recently, the scientific community has investigated the relationship between transposable elements (TE’s) and gene expression. TE’s are segments of DNA that have can move around the genome, excising themselves from one segment of DNA and implanting themselves into another. TE’s make up 45% of the human genome, but do not code for proteins. Previous studies show that they act as enhancers under certain abiotic stress. It’s also been shown that close relatives of TE’s, conserved noncoding sequences, act as enhancers in embryotic zebrafish. However, no studies have been done on the regulatory abilities of TE’s in cells similar to human cells under normal conditions. This study specifically tests the ability of TE’s to act as enhancers in mouse embryotic stem cells. Three segments were found in mouse genomic DNA: one containing a TE and transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), one with a TE outside of TFBS, and one with TFBS only. These three segments were isolated from the mouse genomic DNA and an assay tested levels of gene expression of each segment. The assay showed that TE’s alone do not enhance gene expression, but TE’s with TFBS increase gene expression compared to basal transcription. The segment with TFBS outside a TE showed an increase in gene expression in one orientation of the gene and a decrease in the reverse orientation.