Synthesis, DNA binding, cytotoxicity and sequence specificity of a series of imidazole-containing analogs of the benzoic acid mustard distamycin derivative tallimustine containing an alkylating group at the C-terminus
Brooks, N.; Lee, M.; Wright, S. R.; Woo, S.; Centioni, S.; Hartley, J. A. Synthesis, DNA binding, cytotoxicity and sequence specificity of a series of imidazole-containing analogs of the benzoic acid mustard distamycin derivative tallimustine containing an alkylating group at the C-terminus. Anticancer Drug Des. 1997, 12, 591-606.
In an attempt to produce additional alkylation and crosslinking in the minor groove of DNA, imidazole-containing analogs of distamycin were synthesized with benzoic acid mustard (BAM) and methoxyaziridinyl moieties present at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Analogs 1a-c differed in the number of methylene units (2-4 respectively) between the C-terminal carbonyl group and the methoxyaziridinyl moiety. DNA binding affinity to several polynucleotides decreased with increasing linker length, whereas DNA interstrand crosslinking ability, as measured by a plasmid gel based assay, increased. The in vitro cytotoxicity in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and the panel of human tumor cell lines at the National Cancer Institute decreased with increasing number of methylene units, and no increase in cytotoxicity was observed over compound AR-1-122 which did not contain the methoxyaziridinyl moiety. 1a-c had the same sequence selectivity of alkylation as AR-1-122, showing alkylation only at 5'-TTTTGPu sequences. The relative binding to these sequences decreased with increasing number of methylene units. The addition of a methoxyaziridinyl moiety in this group of imidazole and BAM-containing compounds can, therefore, increase crosslinking ability to naked DNA but this does not result in an increase in cytotoxicity. In contrast the cytotoxicity was related to their ability to produce sequence specific alkylation at 5'-TTTTGPu sequences.
Anti-Cancer Drug Design