Synthesis and biophysical evaluation of minor-groove binding C-terminus modified pyrrole and imidazole triamide analogs of distamycin
Brown, T.; Taherbhai, Z. T.; Sexton, J. S.; Sutterfield, A.; Turlington, M.; Jones, J. B.; Stallings, L.; Stewart, M.; Buchmueller, K. L.; Mackay, H.; O'Hare, C.; Kluza, J.; Nguyen, B.; Wilson, D.; Lee, M.; Hartley, J. A. Synthesis and biophysical evaluation of minor-groove binding C-terminus modified pyrrole and imidazole triamide analogs of distamycin. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007, 15, 474-83.
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Five polyamide derivatives with rationally modified C-terminus moieties were synthesized and their DNA binding specificity and affinity determined. A convergent approach was employed to synthesize polyamides containing an alkylaminopiperazine (4 and 5), a truncated piperazine (6), or an alkyldiamino-C-terminus moiety (7 and 8) with two specific objectives: to investigate the effects of number of potential cationic centers and steric bulk at the C-terminus. CD studies confirmed that compounds 4, 5, 7, and 8 bind in the minor groove of DNA. The alkylpiperazine containing compounds (4 and 5) showed only moderate binding to DNA with DeltaT(m) values of 2.8 and 8.3 degrees C with their cognate sequence, respectively. The alkyldiamino compounds (7 and 8) were more impressive producing a DeltaT(m) of >17 and >22 degrees C, respectively. Compound 6 (truncated piperazine) did not stabilize its cognate DNA sequence. Footprints were observed for all compounds (except compound 6) with their cognate DNA sequence using DNase I footprinting, with compound 7 producing a footprint of 0.1 microM at the expected 5'-ACGCGT-3' site. SPR analysis of compound 7 binding to 5'-ACGCGT-3', 5'-ACCGGT-3', and 5'-AAATTT-3' produced binding affinities of 2.2x10(6), 3.3x10(5), and 1x10(5)M(-1), respectively, indicating a preference for its cognate sequence of 5'-ACGCGT-3'. These results are in good agreement with the footprinting data. The results indicate that steric crowding at the C-terminus is important with respect to binding. However, the number of cationic centers within the molecule may also play a role. The alkyldiamino-containing compounds (7 and 8) warrant further investigation in the field of polyamide research.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry