Capillary electrophoresis as a probe of enantiospecific interactions between photoactive transition metal complexes and DNA
Schaeper, J. P.; Nelsen, L. A.; Shupe, M. A.; Herbert, B. J.; Kane-Maguire, N.; Wheeler, J. F. Capillary electrophoresis as a probe of enantiospecific interactions between photoactive transition metal complexes and DNA. Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 2704-10.
Recently, we have demonstrated the capacity to separate chiral transition metal (TM) complexes of the type M(diimine)(3)](n+) using CE buffers containing chiral tartrate salts. In separate work, several chromium(III)-tris-diimine complexes in particular have been shown to bind enantioselectively with calf-thymus (CT) DNA, and a qualitative assessment of the relative strength and enantiospecificity of this interaction is of significant interest in the characterization of these complexes as potential DNA photocleavage agents. Here, we describe two convenient approaches to investigate such binding behavior using chiral CE. For complexes with lower DNA affinities exhibiting primarily surface binding, DNA itself is used as the chiral resolving agent in the electrophoretic buffer. In this approach, resolution of the TM complexes into their Lambda and Delta isomers is achieved with the isomer eluting later exhibiting superior binding affinity toward DNA. For more strongly bound TM complexes containing ligands known to intercalate with DNA, the Cr(diimine)(3)](3+) complexes are preincubated with oligonucleotide and subsequently enantiomerically resolved in a dibenzoyl-L-tartrate buffer system that facilitates analysis of the unbound TM species only. Differences in isomer binding affinity are distinguished by the relative peak areas of the Lambda- and Delta-isomers, and relative binding strengths of different complexes can be inferred from comparison of the total amount of unbound complex at equivalent DNA/TM ratios.