Molecular basis for the inhibition of HMGA1 proteins by distamycin A
Smith, A. E.; Buchmueller, K. L. Molecular basis for the inhibition of HMGA1 proteins by distamycin A. Biochemistry 2011, 50, 8107-16.
The molecular mechanism for the displacement of HMGA1 proteins from DNA is integral to disrupting their cellular function, which is linked to many metastatic cancers. Chemical shift and NOESY NMR experiments provide structural evidence for the displacement of an AT hook peptide (DNA binding motif of HMGA1 proteins) by both monomeric and dimeric distamycin. However, the displaced AT hook alters distamycin binding by weakening the distamycin:DNA complex, while slowing monomeric distamycin dissociation when AT hook is in excess. The central role of the AT hook was evaluated by monitoring full-length HMGA1a protein binding using fluorescence anisotropy. HMGA1a was effectively displaced by distamycin, but the cooperative binding exhibited by distamycin was eliminated by displaced HMGA1a. Additionally, these studies indicate that HMGA1a is displaced from the DNA by 1 equiv of distamycin, suggesting the ability to develop therapeutics that take advantage of the positively cooperative nature of HMGA1a binding.