Effects of steric constraint on chromium(III) complexes of tetraazamacrocycles, 2. Comparison of the chemistry and photobehavior of the trans-dichloro- and trans-dicyano- complexes of cyclam, 1,4-C2-cyclam, and 1,11-C3-cyclam
Wagenknecht, P. S.; Hu, C.; Ferguson, D.; Nathan, L. C.; Hancock, R. D.; Whitehead, J. R.; Wright-Garcia, K.; Vagnini, M. T. Effects of steric constraint on chromium(III) complexes of tetraazamacrocycles, 2. Comparison of the chemistry and photobehavior of the trans-dichloro- and trans-dicyano- complexes of cyclam, 1,4-C2-cyclam, and 1,11-C3-cyclam. Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 9518-26.
The synthesis and characterization of several Cr(III) complexes of the constrained macrocyclic ligand 1,11-C3-cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo9.3.3]heptadecane) is reported. Only trans complexes are formed, and the structure of trans-Cr(1,11-C3-cyclam)Cl2]PF6 is presented. The chemical and photophysical behavior of the 1,11-C3-cyclam complexes are compared with those of the corresponding cyclam (1,4,8,11 tetraazacyclotetradecane) and 1,4-C2-cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo10.2.2]hexadecane) complexes. The aquation rate of trans-Cr(1,11-C3-cyclam)Cl2]+ is similar to that of the corresponding 1,4-C2-cyclam complex and is more than 5 orders of magnitude faster than the cyclam counterpart. A monotonic increase in the extinction coefficient is observed on going from the cyclam complexes to the 1,11-C3-cyclam complexes to the 1,4-C2-cyclam complexes, and this is related to the degree of centrosymmetry in each complex. The trans-Cr(1,11-C3-cyclam)(CN)2]+ complex is a weak emitter in aqueous solution with a room-temperature emission maximum at 724 nm (tau=23 micros). Like the corresponding 1,4-C2-cyclam complex (tau=0.24 micros), the 1,11-C3-cyclam complex shows no deuterium-isotope effect in room-temperature solution. This is in marked contrast to the corresponding cyclam complex which has an emission lifetime of 335 micros and a significant deuterium isotope effect in room-temperature solution. Low temperature (77K) data are also presented in an attempt to understand the differences in photophysical behavior.