Thermodynamics of forming water clusters at various temperatures and pressures by gaussian-2, gaussian-3, complete basis set-QB3, and complete basis Set-APNO model chemistries; Implications for atmospheric chemistry
Dunn, M. E.; Pokon, E. K.; Shields, G. C. Thermodynamics of Forming Water Clusters at Various Temperatures and Pressures by Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, Complete Basis Set-QB3, and Complete Basis Set-APNO Model Chemistries; Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126 (8), 2647-2653.
The Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, complete basis set- (CBS-) QB3, and CBS-APNO methods have been used to calculate DeltaHdegrees and DeltaGdegrees values for neutral clusters of water, (H(2)O)(n), where n = 2-6. The structures are similar to those determined from experiment and from previous high-level calculations. The thermodynamic calculations by the G2, G3, and CBS-APNO methods compare well against the estimated MP2(CBS) limit. The cyclic pentamer and hexamer structures release the most heat per hydrogen bond formed of any of the clusters. While the cage and prism forms of the hexamer are the lowest energy structures at very low temperatures, as temperature is increased the cyclic structure is favored. The free energies of cluster formation at different temperatures reveal interesting insights, the most striking being that the cyclic trimer, cyclic tetramer, and cyclic pentamer, like the dimer, should be detectable in the lower troposphere. We predict water dimer concentrations of 9 x 10(14) molecules/cm(3), water trimer concentrations of 2.6 x 10(12) molecules/cm(3), tetramer concentrations of approximately 5.8 x 10(11) molecules/cm(3), and pentamer concentrations of approximately 3.5 x 10(10) molecules/cm(3) in saturated air at 298 K. These results have important implications for understanding the gas-phase chemistry of the lower troposphere.
Journal of the American Chemical Society