Comparison of Surface-Bound and Free-Standing Variations of HKUST-1 MOFs: Effect of Activation and Ammonia Exposure on Morphology, Crystallinity, and Composition
Bowser, B.H.; Brower, L.J.; Ohnsorg, M.L.; Gentry, L.K.; Beaudoin, C.K.; Anderson, M.E. Comparison of Surface-Bound and Free-Standing Variations of HKUST-1 MOFs: Effect of Activation and Ammonia Exposure on Morphology, Crystallinity, and Composition. Nanomaterials.2018,8, 650-668.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are extremely porous, crystalline materials with high surface area for potential use in gas storage, sequestration, and separations. Toward incorporation into structures for these applications, this study compares three variations of surface-bound and free-standing HKUST-1 MOF structures: surface-anchored MOF (surMOF) thin film, drop-cast film, and bulk powder. Herein, effects of HKUST-1 ammonia interaction and framework activation, which is removal of guest molecules via heat, are investigated. Impact on morphology and crystal structure as a function of surface confinement and size variance are examined. Scanning probe microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy monitor changes in morphology and crystal structure, track ammonia uptake, and examine elemental composition. After fabrication, ammonia uptake is observed for all MOF variations, but reveals dramatic morphological and crystal structure changes. However, activation of the framework was found to stabilize morphology. For activated surMOF films, findings demonstrate consistent morphology throughout uptake, removal, and recycling of ammonia over multiple exposures. To understand morphological effects, additional ammonia exposure experiments with controlled post-synthetic solvent adsorbates were conducted utilizing a HKUST-1 standard powder. These findings are foundational for determining the capabilities and limitation of MOF films and powders.