Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Human Hair to Characterize Longitudinal Profiles of the Antiretroviral Maraviroc for Adherence Monitoring
Here, we assess infrared matrix assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis of hair as a clinical tool for monitoring patient adherence to the antiretroviral maraviroc (MVC). A custom MATLAB-based algorithm has been developed to streamline data analysis and generate longitudinal profiles of drug incorporation along the length of hair strands. Hair strands from volunteers enrolled in a directly observed therapy study were analyzed by IR-MALDESI MSI and processed using this tool to characterize the profiles of single doses and a daily dose regimen of MVC. Single dose responses were 1.7 [1.1, 2.5] mm (median [range]) wide along the length of the hair and were detected in 8 out of 12 volunteers. Daily dose profiles capturing 28 days of continuous dosing were approximately 5 times the intensity of single dose profiles and 10.5 [7.0, 13] mm wide, corresponding to 1 month of hair growth. MVC ion abundance was observed in all 12 volunteers for the daily dosing period. Daily dosing profiles were consistent with a model of MVC accumulation in hair based on linear superposition of a single dose response, indicating the potential for prediction of daily drug-taking behavior based on deconvolution of a complex longitudinal profile in hair.