Insights into the Charge-Transfer Character of Electronic Transitions in RCp2Ti(C2Fc)2 Complexes using Solvatochromism, Resonance Raman Spectroscopy, and TDDFT
Carlton, E. S.; Sutton, J. J.; Gale, A. G.; Shields, G. C.; Gordon, K. C.; Wagenknecht, P. S. "Insights into the Charge-Transfer Character of Electronic Transitions in RCp2Ti(C2Fc)2 Complexes using Solvatochromism, Resonance Raman Spectroscopy, and TDDFT" Dalton Trans. 2021, 50, 2233-2242.
A series of complexes with low-energy FeII to TiIV metal-to-metal charge-transfer (MMCT) transitions, Cp2Ti(C2Fc)2, Cp*2Ti(C2Fc)2, and MeOOCCp2Ti(C2Fc)2, was investigated using solvatochromism and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) augmented with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations in order to interrogate the nature of the CT transitions. Computational models were benchmarked against the experimental UV-Vis spectra and B3LYP/6-31G(d) was found to most faithfully represent the spectra. The energy of the MMCT transition was measured in 15 different solvents and a multivariate fit to the Catalán solvent parameters - solvent polarizability (SP), solvent dipolarity (SdP), solvent basicity (SB), and solvent acidity (SA) - was performed. The effect of SP indicates a greater degree of electron delocalization in the excited state (ES) than the ground state (GS). The small negative solvatochromism with respect to SdP indicates a smaller dipole moment in the ES than the GS. The effect of SB is consistent with charge-transfer to Ti. Upon excitation into the MMCT absorption band, the RRS data show enhancement of the alkyne stretching modes and of the out-of-plane bending modes of the cyclopentadienyl ring connected to Fe and the alkyne bridge. This is consistent with changes in the oxidation states of Ti and Fe, respectively. The higher-energy transitions (350-450 nm) show enhancement of vibrational modes consistent with ethnylcyclopentadienyl to Ti ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). The RRS data is consistent with the TDDFT predicted character of these transitions. TDDFT suggests that the lowest-energy transition in Cp2Ti(C2Fc)2CuI, where CuI is coordinated between the alkynes, retains its FeII to TiIV MMCT character, in agreement with the RRS data, but that the lowest-energy transitions have significant CuI to Ti character. For Cp2Ti(C2Fc)2CuI, excitation into the low-energy MMCT absorption band results in selective enhancement of the symmetric alkynyl stretching mode.