Role of the Trifluoropropynyl Ligand in Blue-Shifting Charge-Transfer States in Emissive Pt Diimine Complexes and an Investigation into the PMMA-Imposed Rigidoluminescence and Rigidochromism
McCarthy, J.S.; McCormick, M.J.; Zimmerman, J.H.; Hambrick, H.R.; Thomas, W.M.; McMillen, C.D.; Wagenknecht, P.S. "Role of the Trifluoropropynyl Ligand in Blue-Shifting Charge-Transfer States in Emissive Pt Diimine Complexes and an Investigation into the PMMA-Imposed Rigidoluminescence and Rigidochromism." Inorg. Chem. 2022, 61, 29, 11366 – 11376.
Square-planar PtII complexes are of interest as dopants for the emissive layer of organic light-emitting diodes. Herein, the photophysics of three Pt bipyridyl complexes with the strongly e– withdrawing, high-field, 3,3,3-trifluoropropynyl ligand has been investigated. One complex, (phbpy)PtC2CF3 (phbpy = 6-phenyl-2,2′-dipyridyl), has also been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All complexes reported are emissive in both RT CH2Cl2 solution (ΦPL = 0.007 to 0.027) and PMMA film (ΦPL = 0.25 to 0.42). The trifluoropropynyl ligand elevates the energy of the MLCT and LL’CT states above that of the IL π–π* state, resulting in IL emission in all cases. The emission energies of the trifluoropropynyl compounds are also blue-shifted relative to the analogous pentafluorophenylethynyl compounds, suggesting that the trifluoropropynyl ligand is one of the most electron-withdrawing alkynyl ligands. Rate constants for radiative and nonradiative deactivation were determined from experimentally determined values of ΦPL and excited-state lifetimes in both solution and PMMA films. The increase in ΦPL upon incorporation into PMMA film (rigidoluminescence) results from a decrease in the rate constant for non-radiative relaxation. Experimental activation energies for excited-state decay in combination with TDDFT are consistent with the rigidoluminescence resulting from an increase in the energy of the non-emissive triplet metal-centered state. Two of the complexes investigated, (Ph2bpy)Pt(C2CF3)2 and (t-Bu2bpy)Pt(C2CF3)2, where t-Bu2bpy = 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-dipyridyl and Ph2bpy = 4,4′-diphenyl-2,2′-dipyridyl, exhibit concentration-dependent excimer emission (orange) along with monomer emission (blue), enabling fine-tuning of the emission color. However, excimer emission was absent in cured PMMA films up to the solubility limit for solution processing of (Ph2bpy)Pt(C2CF3)2 in CH2Cl2, demonstrating the diffusional nature of excimer formation.