Targeting the inverted CCAAT box 2 in the topoisomerase IIα promoter by JH-37, an imidazole-pyrrole polyamide hairpin: design, synthesis, molecular biology, and biophysical studies
Henry, J. A.; Le, N. M.; Nguyen, B.; Howard, C. M.; Bailey, S. L.; Horick, S. M.; Buchmueller, K. L.; Kotecha, M.; Hochhauser, D.; Hartley, J. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Lee, M. Targeting the inverted CCAAT box 2 in the topoisomerase IIα promoter by JH-37, an imidazole-pyrrole polyamide hairpin: design, synthesis, molecular biology, and biophysical studies. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 12249-57.
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The topoisomerase IIα promoter is regulated through transcription factor interactions with five inverted CCAAT boxes (ICBs). In confluent cancer cells, binding of nuclear factor Y to ICB2 represses the expression of this gene, contributing to resistance to topoisomerase II poisons. The ICB sites within the topoisomerase IIα promoter are, therefore, potential targets for the design of anticancer drugs and gene control agents. The synthesis and DNA binding properties of a hairpin polyamide molecule (JH-37) that targets 5‘-TTGGT-3‘ found in ICB2 and ICB3 sites are described. Gel shift and DNase I footprinting studies on the topoisomerase IIα promoter showed JH-37 to preferentially bind to ICB2,3 and ICB1 sites. The larger ΔTM values for ICB2,3 (8−9 °C) over ICB1,4,5 (4−5 °C) indicated a preference of JH-37 for ICB2,3. CD titration studies confirmed the binding of JH-37 to the minor groove, with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Results from SPR studies showed JH-37 to bind most strongly to ICB2 (K = 3 × 107 M-1), followed by ICB1, the non-ICB sequence (TGCA), and finally the ICB mutant (ICB2m). The improved binding to ICB2 is largely due to a lower dissociation rate of the compound at the preferred site. To our knowledge, this is the first example on the use of SPR for studying the interactions of hairpin polyamides with DNA. Binding of JH-37 to ICB2 was corroborated by ITC studies, in which the ΔG° of binding is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. With knowledge of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic properties that govern the molecular recognition of polyamides with DNA, we are poised to systematically edit the structure of JH-37 in order to further enhance its binding affinity and selectivity for ICB2,3. Our strategy for designing molecules that control gene expression is to target shorter, but multiple, binding sites that are in close array within the promoter. Binding of JH-37 to multiple ICB sites in the topoisomerase IIα promoter is an ideal test for this strategy. This approach is in contrast to the traditional strategy of targeting 15−16 base pairs, which has not been successful in actual biological systems due to poor cell uptake and distribution.