Complexes of acridine and 9-chloroacridine with I2: formation of unusual I6 chains through charge-transfer interactions involving amphoteric I2
Rimmer, E. L.; Bailey, R. D.; Hanks, T. W.; Pennington, W. T. Complexes of acridine and 9-chloroacridine with I2: formation of unusual I6 chains through charge-transfer interactions involving amphoteric I2. Chemistry 2000, 6, 4071-81.
Acridine and 9-chloroacridine form charge-transfer complexes with iodine in which the nitrogen-bound I2 molecule is amphoteric; one end serves as a Lewis acid to the heterocyclic donor, while the other end acts as a Lewis base to a second I2 molecule that bridges two acridine.I2 units. In the acridine derivative (acridine.I2)2.I2, 1], the dimer has a "zigzag" conformation, while in the 9-chloroacridine derivative (9-Cl-acridine.I2)2.I2, 2], the dimer is "C-shaped". The thermal decomposition of the two complexes is very different. Compound 1 loses one molecule of I2 to form an acridine.I2 intermediate, which has not been isolated. Further decomposition gives acridine as the form II polymorph, exclusively. Decomposition of 2 involves the loss of two molecules of I2 to form a relatively stable intermediate (9-Cl-acridine)2.I2, 3]. Compound 3 consists of two 9-Cl-acridine molecules bridged through N...I charge-transfer interactions by a single I2 molecule. This compound represents the first known example, in which both ends of an I2 molecule form interactions in a complex that is not stabilized by the extended interactions of an infinite chain structure. The ability of the terminal iodine of an N-bound I2 to act either as an electron donor (complexes 1 and 2) or as an electron acceptor (complex 3) can be understood through a quantum mechanical analysis of the systems. Both electrostatic interactions and the overlap of frontier molecular orbitals contribute to the observed behavior.
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)